Fluency for Pre-K

What is Fluency?

Photo of a man reading to a child.

Reading fluency refers to the ability to read text accurately and automatically so that one understands what is being read. (Definition from University of Oregon)

In pre-k, fluency is observing and listening to adults read aloud and model fluent reading. Pre-k children are developing early reading behaviors and are not expected to be reading words independently at this stage.

What Does it Look Like?

How can reading behaviors be supported?

What does it look like to model fluency?

Practice Activities

Model Reading Fluency:  Use the following tips for Reading With Expression

  • Read expressively: talk the way the story's characters would talk; make sound effects and funny faces; and vary the pitch of your voice throughout the story to make it more interesting.
  • Expressively reread when you notice words like “shouted”, “cried” or “laughed”.
  • Expressively reread when you notice punctuation such as ! and ?.
  • Enjoy the time reading together! Do not rush.
  • Watch Reading Fluency.

ABC Books:  Read ABC books to the child.  Take time to name and point to each letter. Have the child repeat the name of letters.  Read the books several times and notice the number of letters the child can identify increase!

ABC Cookie Cutters:  Use letter shaped cookie cutters with play dough and/or cookie dough.  Take time to name and point to each letter.  Have the child repeat the name of letters.

Letters Everywhere:  Name letters on signs, license plates, and more when you are riding in the car or taking a walk! Watch Letters Everywhere.

Be a Role Model:  Don't forget to be a reader and writer yourself.  One of the most effective ways to help children become readers and writers is to show them through your own example that you value literacy - and that reading and writing have useful purposes. Keep books and writing materials in the home, and talk about what you are doing when you read and write.

Practice Activities (with Printables)

If you don't have a printer, your child's school will print these for you.

Letter Sorting: Sort letters using magazines, empty boxes, junk mail, and more. This activity is written for teachers, but can be easily adapted for use at home.  Letter Sorting

Pick and Write: Pick, name, and write letters with the Letter Tree activity. This activity is written for teachers, but can be easily adapted for use at home.  Pick and Write

Play to Read: Use a subset of the NC Office of Early Learning Play to Read with a Caregiver resource to focus on letter naming. Print 4 slides per page for cards on the go!  Play to Read: Letter Knowledge

Online Activities

Models of Fluent Reading: This resource provides opportunities to see illustrations and listen to books read fluently.

Naming Letters While Moving: This capital letter video and this lowercase video make learning fun by activating the child’s brain through song and movement.